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Table 1.

Exemplars of Screening Tool Misuse

Screening ToolIntended UseCommon MisuseRisks
Short Sensory Profile 2 (Dunn, 2014) To identify whether sensory processing is likely to be a factor in a child’s participation (e.g., population screening or research programs) Often used as a diagnostic tool for sensory processing disorder • Inaccurate data for treatment planning
• Children unnecessarily labeled as having a particular disorder 
Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (Kroenke et al., 2010) To identify depressive symptoms and serve as a screener for suicidal concerns if used in the general population Often used to measure depressive symptoms over time for people who have not been otherwise diagnosed with depression • People misclassified as having depression because of a high false-positive rate (Levis et al., 2019) 
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Nasreddine et al., 2005) To screen for cognitive impairments. Each impairment is represented by only 1–2 items (e.g., attention, short-term memory) Used to confirm whether a cognitive impairment is present, to measure change over time, or to infer functional cognitive abilities • Inaccurate data to inform treatment planning
• Inaccurate measurement of progress
• People incorrectly classified as cognitively intact when they could be a safety concern at home 
Screening ToolIntended UseCommon MisuseRisks
Short Sensory Profile 2 (Dunn, 2014) To identify whether sensory processing is likely to be a factor in a child’s participation (e.g., population screening or research programs) Often used as a diagnostic tool for sensory processing disorder • Inaccurate data for treatment planning
• Children unnecessarily labeled as having a particular disorder 
Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (Kroenke et al., 2010) To identify depressive symptoms and serve as a screener for suicidal concerns if used in the general population Often used to measure depressive symptoms over time for people who have not been otherwise diagnosed with depression • People misclassified as having depression because of a high false-positive rate (Levis et al., 2019) 
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Nasreddine et al., 2005) To screen for cognitive impairments. Each impairment is represented by only 1–2 items (e.g., attention, short-term memory) Used to confirm whether a cognitive impairment is present, to measure change over time, or to infer functional cognitive abilities • Inaccurate data to inform treatment planning
• Inaccurate measurement of progress
• People incorrectly classified as cognitively intact when they could be a safety concern at home 
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