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Table 3.

Dependent t Tests Investigating Change in Outcomes From Baseline to Posttest and From Posttest to 3-Mo Follow-Up

VariableObserved Values, M (SD)Change in Outcomes
Baseline to Posttest (n = 13)Posttest to 3-Mo Follow-Up (n = 12)
BaselineaPosttestaFollow-UpbM (SD)SEt (12)dM (SD)SEt (11)d
Sleep-related outcomes 
 Sleep disturbances 59.52 (5.34) 48.19 (7.02) 50.54 (6.21) 11.33 (8.13) 2.26 5.02*** 1.39 −2.13 (7.61) 2.20 −0.97 0.28 
 Dysfunctional beliefs 4.51 (0.84) 2.15 (0.65) 2.40 (1.04) 2.35 (0.99) 0.28 8.55*** 2.37 −0.23 (0.74) 0.21 −1.10 0.32 
 Nightmares 6.69 (4.55) 3.38 (2.84) 4.00 (3.25) 3.31 (3.61) 1.00 3.30** 0.92 −0.33 (1.88) 0.54 −0.62 0.18 
Health conditions 
 Stress 18.23 (5.15) 13.31 (7.42) 15.50 (5.84) 4.92 (5.12) 1.42 3.47** 0.96 −1.92 (5.57) 1.61 −1.19 0.35 
 Depression 9.69 (6.14) 5.69 (4.68) 5.58 (3.87) 4.00 (4.81) 1.34 3.00* 0.83 0.58 (1.93) 0.56 1.05 0.31 
 Anxiety 8.77 (5.23) 5.08 (3.86) 5.92 (4.12) 3.69 (3.71) 1.03 3.59** 1.00 −0.42 (2.71) 0.78 −0.53 0.16 
 PTSD 16.23 (6.31) 13.69 (6.07) 12.25 (3.47) 2.54 (4.58) 1.27 2.00 0.56 1.92 (3.15) 0.91 2.11 0.61 
 Pain 55.62 (6.48) 53.83 (7.39) 51.98 (7.31) 1.79 (7.86) 2.18 0.82 0.23 2.12 (3.54) 1.02 2.07 0.60 
Participation-related outcomes 
 Meaningful activity 28.92 (4.91) 32.85 (5.21) 30.17 (8.02) −3.92 (5.14) 1.43 −2.75* 0.77 2.75 (6.43) 1.86 1.48 0.43 
 Satisfaction 43.94 (7.24) 47.98 (5.52) 47.05 (6.22) −4.05 (7.62) 2.11 −1.92 0.53 1.20 (5.68) 1.64 0.73 0.21 
 Performance 48.26 (7.31) 50.12 (7.62) 49.09 (5.33) −1.86 (6.74) 1.87 −1.00 0.28 0.88 (5.36) 1.55 0.57 0.17 
 Mindfulness 3.82 (0.67) 4.27 (0.87) 4.22 (0.92) −0.45 (0.70) 0.19 −0.87* 0.64 0.09 (0.81) 0.23 0.38 0.11 
VariableObserved Values, M (SD)Change in Outcomes
Baseline to Posttest (n = 13)Posttest to 3-Mo Follow-Up (n = 12)
BaselineaPosttestaFollow-UpbM (SD)SEt (12)dM (SD)SEt (11)d
Sleep-related outcomes 
 Sleep disturbances 59.52 (5.34) 48.19 (7.02) 50.54 (6.21) 11.33 (8.13) 2.26 5.02*** 1.39 −2.13 (7.61) 2.20 −0.97 0.28 
 Dysfunctional beliefs 4.51 (0.84) 2.15 (0.65) 2.40 (1.04) 2.35 (0.99) 0.28 8.55*** 2.37 −0.23 (0.74) 0.21 −1.10 0.32 
 Nightmares 6.69 (4.55) 3.38 (2.84) 4.00 (3.25) 3.31 (3.61) 1.00 3.30** 0.92 −0.33 (1.88) 0.54 −0.62 0.18 
Health conditions 
 Stress 18.23 (5.15) 13.31 (7.42) 15.50 (5.84) 4.92 (5.12) 1.42 3.47** 0.96 −1.92 (5.57) 1.61 −1.19 0.35 
 Depression 9.69 (6.14) 5.69 (4.68) 5.58 (3.87) 4.00 (4.81) 1.34 3.00* 0.83 0.58 (1.93) 0.56 1.05 0.31 
 Anxiety 8.77 (5.23) 5.08 (3.86) 5.92 (4.12) 3.69 (3.71) 1.03 3.59** 1.00 −0.42 (2.71) 0.78 −0.53 0.16 
 PTSD 16.23 (6.31) 13.69 (6.07) 12.25 (3.47) 2.54 (4.58) 1.27 2.00 0.56 1.92 (3.15) 0.91 2.11 0.61 
 Pain 55.62 (6.48) 53.83 (7.39) 51.98 (7.31) 1.79 (7.86) 2.18 0.82 0.23 2.12 (3.54) 1.02 2.07 0.60 
Participation-related outcomes 
 Meaningful activity 28.92 (4.91) 32.85 (5.21) 30.17 (8.02) −3.92 (5.14) 1.43 −2.75* 0.77 2.75 (6.43) 1.86 1.48 0.43 
 Satisfaction 43.94 (7.24) 47.98 (5.52) 47.05 (6.22) −4.05 (7.62) 2.11 −1.92 0.53 1.20 (5.68) 1.64 0.73 0.21 
 Performance 48.26 (7.31) 50.12 (7.62) 49.09 (5.33) −1.86 (6.74) 1.87 −1.00 0.28 0.88 (5.36) 1.55 0.57 0.17 
 Mindfulness 3.82 (0.67) 4.27 (0.87) 4.22 (0.92) −0.45 (0.70) 0.19 −0.87* 0.64 0.09 (0.81) 0.23 0.38 0.11 

Note. PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder.

a

Indicates value for the 14 participants who took the baseline and posttest assessments.

b

Indicates value for the 12 participants who took the 3-mo follow-up.

*

p ≤ .05.

**

p ≤ .01.

***

p ≤ .001.

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