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Table 2.

Children’s Characteristics, by Group

Characteristic Treatment Group (n = 40)
 
Control Group (n = 38)
 
t/X2 p 
M SD M SD 
Gender       0.008 .93 
 Male 67.5   68.4     
Race or ethnicity       5.57 .23 
 White 30.0   44.7     
 African American 47.5   36.8     
 Hispanic 7.5       
 Native American   2.6     
 Mixed race 15.0   15.8     
Adopted 84.6   84.2   0.002 .96 
Foster care 27.0   13.2   4.42 .35 
Age (years)  8.12 1.48  9.24 1.36 −3.47 .001 
Intellectual functioning 
 Verbal IQ  91.25 16.79  91.37 15.66   
 Performance IQ  90.10 15.23  92.32 19.84   
 Full Scale IQ  89.68 15.94  90.97 17.62   
Repeated a grade in school 14.7   23.7   0.92 .34 
Diagnosis 
 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 67.5   73.7   0.36 .36 
 Anxiety disorder 5.0   7.9   0.27 .48 
 Attachment disorder 12.5   10.5   0.074 .53 
 Disruptive disorder 10.0   5.3   0.62 .36 
 Elimination disorder 12.5   15.8   0.17 .46 
 Mood disorder 10.0   26.3   3.52 .06 
 Posttraumatic stress disorder 22.5   10.5   2.012 .13 
Prenatal exposure to other substances 
 Tobacco 36.4   37.5   0.009 .92 
 Cocaine 56.8   44.1   1.13 .29 
 Other 22.5   21.1   0.024 .88 
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder 
 Fetal alcohol syndrome 12     0.40 .82 
 Partial fetal alcohol syndrome       
 Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder 23   24     
Characteristic Treatment Group (n = 40)
 
Control Group (n = 38)
 
t/X2 p 
M SD M SD 
Gender       0.008 .93 
 Male 67.5   68.4     
Race or ethnicity       5.57 .23 
 White 30.0   44.7     
 African American 47.5   36.8     
 Hispanic 7.5       
 Native American   2.6     
 Mixed race 15.0   15.8     
Adopted 84.6   84.2   0.002 .96 
Foster care 27.0   13.2   4.42 .35 
Age (years)  8.12 1.48  9.24 1.36 −3.47 .001 
Intellectual functioning 
 Verbal IQ  91.25 16.79  91.37 15.66   
 Performance IQ  90.10 15.23  92.32 19.84   
 Full Scale IQ  89.68 15.94  90.97 17.62   
Repeated a grade in school 14.7   23.7   0.92 .34 
Diagnosis 
 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 67.5   73.7   0.36 .36 
 Anxiety disorder 5.0   7.9   0.27 .48 
 Attachment disorder 12.5   10.5   0.074 .53 
 Disruptive disorder 10.0   5.3   0.62 .36 
 Elimination disorder 12.5   15.8   0.17 .46 
 Mood disorder 10.0   26.3   3.52 .06 
 Posttraumatic stress disorder 22.5   10.5   2.012 .13 
Prenatal exposure to other substances 
 Tobacco 36.4   37.5   0.009 .92 
 Cocaine 56.8   44.1   1.13 .29 
 Other 22.5   21.1   0.024 .88 
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder 
 Fetal alcohol syndrome 12     0.40 .82 
 Partial fetal alcohol syndrome       
 Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder 23   24     

Note. M = mean; SD = standard deviation.

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