Date Presented 04/21/2023
This study included a scoping review mapping preventive health interventions and semistructured interviews exploring how adults perceived their health and lifestyle as influencing their beliefs about health prevention.
Primary Author and Speaker: Allison Naber
Additional Authors and Speakers: Whitney Lucas Molitor
PURPOSE: Chronic conditions, increasingly prevalent among adults in the U.S., are attributed largely to modifiable factors (CDC, 2021). Management and prevention of chronic conditions are improved by reducing risk factors and modifying lifestyle behaviors (Reitz et al., 2020). This research aimed to understand how health is perceived by individuals and treated by health professionals, including OT.
DESIGN: To explore preventative interventions, this study included a scoping review and semi-structured interviews with community-dwelling adults 50 years or older.
METHOD: The scoping review used the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology to identify the focus of preventative health interventions and the service providers. A general qualitative design was used regarding how participants perceived their health and lifestyle as influencing their beliefs about health prevention. Questions focused on perceived health status, lifestyle behaviors, and knowledge of and attitudes toward participation in preventative programs.
RESULTS: In the scoping review, OT practitioners were part of the research team in 9 of 98 articles. Physical activity interventions were the most frequent form of health prevention. Ten participants, 50-72 years old (x- = 58.3 years), were included in the qualitative phase. Using inductive analysis (Percy et al., 2015) individual responses were analyzed before compiling a composite synthesis for each theme. Themes included motivation, negative implications, and health behaviors. Collectively the findings highlight a narrow focus on health prevention interventions with a mix of motivating and limiting factors surrounding participation.
CONCLUSION: Several factors contribute to health outcomes, some of which are modifiable through lifestyle and behavior change. Health prevention intervention can be used in OT to improve well-being.
IMPACT STATEMENT: There is a need, and role, for OT in primary prevention to expand the current service-delivery model.
Center For Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). About chronic disease. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/about/
Percy, W. H., Kostere, K., & Kostere, S. (2015). Generic qualitative research in psychology. The Qualitative Report, 20(2), 76–85. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2015.2097
Reitz, S. M., Scaffa, M. E., & Dorsey, J. (2020). Occupational therapy in the promotion of health and well-being. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(3), 7403420010p1–7403420010p14. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.743003