Date Presented 04/20/2023

The co-occupational constructs of shared emotionality, shared intentionality, and shared physicality provide an understanding of how co-occupation may be a valuable mechanism for evaluation and intervention.

Primary Author and Speaker: Bryan M. Gee

Additional Authors and Speakers: Nicki L. Aubuchon-Endsley

Contributing Authors: Molly Kegley, Lauren Troy, Brittany Banh

PURPOSE: The goal of this retrospective descriptive cohort study is to explore the frequency and duration of co-occupational constructs (physicality, intentionality & emotionality) (Pickens & Pizur-Barnekow, 2009) among typical caregiver–infant dyads at 6, 12, and 18 months living in a rural and medically underserved area.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort design.

METHODS: Using a sample of 63 caregiver–infant dyads living in a rural, medically underserved area in the United States were collected through 7-minute recordings when the infants were 6, 12, and 18 months of age. A coding scheme was used to identify the three constructs of co-occupation: shared emotionality, intentionality, and physicality (Gee et al., 2021; Aubuchon-Endsley et al., 2020). Findings: The constructs of co-occupation of the caregiver–infant dyads at six months yielded the following results. The findings for shared physicality had an M = 16.04 (SD = 28.24) seconds (duration) and 6.71 (SD = 4.30)(frequency) bouts of the interaction. The results for shared emotionality generated an M = 8.8 (SD = 9.34) seconds and 7.2 (SD = 4.43) bouts of the interaction. The outcomes for shared intentionality resulted in an M = 23.46 (SD = 50.46) and 6.27 (SD = 3.41) bouts of the interaction. The analysis and reporting for 12 and 18 will be further disseminated as a part of the poster presentation.

CONCLUSION: The preliminary findings provide a snapshot of what co-occupational looks like among typical infant/maternal dyads at the infant’s age of 6 months. Further analysis and reporting of co-occupational constructs at 12 and 18 months may provide an understanding of how observable co-occupations may be a valuable mechanism for evaluation and intervention in early childhood among larger samples than previously analyzed (Gee et al., 2021; Aubuchon-Endsley et al., 2020).


Pickens N. D., & Pizur-Barnekow K. (2009). Co-occupation: Extending the dialogue. Journal of Occupational Science, 16(3), 151–156.

Gee, B. M., Troy, L., Aubuchon-Endsley, N., & Ramsdell-Hudock, H. L. (2021). Infant and Maternal Co-Occupational Patterns: A Retrospective Descriptive Cohort Study. Annals of International Occupational Therapy, 4(3), e166–e171.

Aubuchon-Endsley N., Gee B., Devine N., Ramsdell-Hudock H., Swann-Thomsen H., & Brumley M. R. (2020). A cohort study of relations among caregiver-infant co-occupation and reciprocity. OTJR, 40(4), 261–269.