Date Presented 04/01/2022

This preliminary study uses a quantitative correlational research method to determine the relationship of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to stroke survivors’ perceived social support and self-efficacy. Results indicate statistically significant positive correlations between perceived social support and self-efficacy with a negative correlation between the impact of COVID-19 and perceived social support. OT interventions can focus on enhancing friendship-based social support to benefit stroke survivors.

Primary Author and Speaker: Yan-hua Huang

Additional Authors and Speakers: Crystal Solano, Sarah Nakamura, Justin Navarro, Nataliya Pinchuk, Michelle Vuong

PURPOSE: This preliminary study aims to analyze the relationship between the impact of COVID-19, self-efficacy, and perceived social support in stroke survivors at a community-based stroke center.

DESIGN: This quantitative correlational research study collected data through the use of five standardized surveys and a demographic questionnaire. Inclusion criteria for participants required all stroke survivors to have had a stroke at least 6 months prior, be a member of the local community stroke center, have access to a phone/computer, be fluent in English or Spanish.

METHOD: A quantitative correlational research study was conducted through convenience sampling to explore the relationship between self-efficacy, perceived social support, and the impact of COVID-19 on stroke survivors. Five standardize surveys which included the Daily Living Self-Efficacy Scale (DLSES), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ), Coronavirus Impact Scale (CIS), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were used.

RESULTS: While data collection for this study remains ongoing, preliminary results for our 12 participants displayed a significant negative correlation between the CIS and the family domain of the MSPSS (r(12) = -.58, p < .05). The friendship domain of the MSPSS was a predictor of self-efficacy in the GSES (r(12) = .78, p < .01), DLSES (r(12) = .79, p < .01), and SSEQ (r(12) = .79, p < .01). The final results will be reported at the conference.

CONCLUSION: Stroke survivors who lack support from their family were likely to experience a greater negative impact as a result of the pandemic. Similarly, stroke survivors who experience greater support from their friends were likely to have been less impacted. A negative correlation between the CIS and MSPSS family domain indicates that COVID-19 had a greater impact on individuals with lower perceived social support from their families. Higher levels of social support in the friendship domain had a high positive correlation with self-efficacy among stroke survivors. Perceived social support within the close-knit community was a main predictor of increased self-efficacy, which aids in the recovery from a stroke (Korpershoek et al., 2011; Szczepańska-Gieracha, 2021). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, occupational therapy groups have been postponed. Therefore, restoring occupational therapy group interventions with a focus on enhancing friendship-based social support may benefit stroke survivors following the global pandemic (Beckley, 2007; Kruithof et al., 2013). The preliminary results indicate that increased social support from friends correlates with increased confidence in abilities related to performing their daily activities impacted by their stroke. No previous study has investigated the impact of social support on members of a local community stroke center during a global pandemic. It is vital that occupational therapists consider the impact of social support on self-efficacy and the impact self-efficacy has on recovery in their interventions with stroke survivors.


Beckley, M. N. (2007). The influence of the quality and quantity of social support in the promotion of community participation following stroke. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 54(3), 215–220.

Kruithof, W. J, van Mierlo, M. L., Visser-Meily, J.M.A, van Heugten, C. M, & Post, M.W.M. (2013). Associations between social support and stroke survivors’ health-related quality of life—A systematic review. Patient Education and Counseling, 93(2), 169–176.

Korpershoek, C., Bijl, J. Van Der, & Hafsteinsdóttir, T. B. (2011). Self-efficacy and its influence on recovery of patients with stroke: A systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(9), 1876–1894.

Szczepańska-Gieracha, J. & Mazurek, J. (2020). The role of self-efficacy in the recovery process of stroke survivors. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13(1), 897–906.