Importance: Occupation-based interventions are used during inpatient rehabilitation, and group models may enhance intervention delivery. However, little is known about the impact of occupation-based groups on patient outcomes.

Objective: To examine the effect of an occupation-based group on patient outcome measures of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) skills over time and explore demographic differences among patients.

Design: Longitudinal observational cohort study with four time points: preintervention, postintervention, 30-day follow-up, and 90-day follow-up.

Setting: Tertiary hospital general rehabilitation ward.

Participants: Inpatient adults age 18 or older recruited using consecutive sampling from those referred to the group.

Intervention: The LifeSkills group, which focused on repetitive practice of meaningful occupation-based activities.

Outcomes and Measures: Demographic data were obtained, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Goal Attainment Scaling, Lawton IADL scale, and a self-efficacy scale were administered at each data point.

Results: Thirty people (21 women, 9 men; ages 35–91 yr) participated, with 5 lost to follow-up. A statistically significant increase in scores postintervention occurred on all measures and was also seen at 90-day follow-up for COPM occupational performance, satisfaction, and self-efficacy scores. Lawton IADL scale scores at follow-up were lower than those at preintervention and statistically significant. No significant differences were found for age and diagnosis.

Conclusions and Relevance: Positive patient outcomes of goal achievement, occupational performance, satisfaction, and self-efficacy were seen at discharge, with evidence of sustainability over time. This could be a resource alternative for addressing skill retraining because people with different diagnoses and in different age groups benefited equally.

What This Article Adds: Occupation-based group programs have encouraging application in general inpatient rehabilitation for addressing patient outcomes.

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