Importance: Demand is increasing for occupational therapy practitioners to help the growing population of adults with chronic conditions manage their conditions.
Objective: This Practice Guideline, which is informed by systematic reviews of the literature on the use of self-management interventions, is meant to guide occupational therapy practitioners’ clinical decision making when working with community-dwelling adults with chronic conditions. The chronic conditions included heart disease, chronic lung conditions, diabetes, and kidney disease. The self-management interventions addressed ADLs and sleep and rest; IADLs; education, work, volunteering, leisure, and social participation; and the caregiver role.
Method: We reviewed, discussed, and integrated the clinical recommendations developed from four systematic reviews, supporting literature, and expert opinion to provide recommendations for practice.
Results: A total of 102 articles were included in the systematic reviews, which served as the primary basis for the practice recommendations.
Conclusions and Recommendations: Strong to moderate evidence supports clinical recommendations for the use of self-management interventions when working with clients with chronic conditions. We recommend the use of a multimodal approach that includes three components—education, goal setting, and problem solving—over an extended period to assist clients in establishing self-management habits and routines. On the basis of emerging evidence and expert opinion, we recommend that occupational therapy practitioners consider using a prevention approach, helping clients establish habits and routines, and emphasizing shared goal setting when addressing clients’ self-management of chronic conditions.
What This Article Adds: This Practice Guideline provides a summary of strong to moderate evidence that supports clinical recommendations for the use of self-management interventions with clients with chronic conditions. When guided by this evidence, occupational therapy practitioners are better able to help clients meet their occupational challenges.