Importance: Occupational therapy practitioners need updated information about interventions that may improve or maintain functional changes in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) engagement caused by multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: To conduct a narrative synthesis of updated evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve or maintain performance of and participation in IADLs among adults with MS.

Data Sources: CINAHL, MEDLINE in PubMed, Cochrane, OTseeker, and PsycINFO.

Study Selection and Data Collection: This systematic review followed the Cochrane Collaboration methodology and is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for conducting a systematic review. Inclusion criteria were Level 1 or 2 evidence, published in English, published from January 2011 to December 2018, intervention within the occupational therapy scope of practice, and at least one IADL outcome measure.

Findings: Nineteen randomized controlled trials (including pilot and feasibility trials) and 1 preintervention–postintervention study met inclusion criteria. Results of this review show strong strength of evidence for coaching interventions in addressing physical activity (PA) routines and moderate support in addressing medication routines. Moderate strength of evidence was found with mixed results for interventions involving coaching plus prescribed PA in improving PA participation.

Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review supports occupational therapy practitioners addressing PA and medication health management and maintenance IADLs through the use of coaching interventions when treating people with MS. Other IADLs were addressed by the articles in this review but require more evidence to make clinical recommendations.

What This Article Adds: Occupational therapy practitioners’ skills in promoting habits and routines paired with utilization of evidence-supported coaching interventions can support independence with health management and reduce the negative impact of MS on daily activity participation.

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