Importance: Rural homebound older adults are a vulnerable population at risk for depression, loneliness, and limited participation, but studies that examine these factors in this population are scarce.
Objective: To describe the degree of depression, loneliness, and activity engagement among rural homebound older adults and determine differences in loneliness and activity engagement between those with and those without self-reported depression.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Setting: Two rural counties in south central Indiana.
Participants: Homebound adults ages 60 yr and older who received nutritional or companionship services from a local Area Agency on Aging.
Outcomes and Measures: Depression was measured with an item on the self-report questionnaire and the Geriatric Depression Scale–15. Loneliness was measured with an item on the self-report questionnaire and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Activity engagement was measured with the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey and the Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment.
Results: Ninety-one participants returned surveys, of which 78 were analyzed. Regarding depression, 40% of participants reported having it, but results for the Geriatric Depression Scale–15 showed that 63% were in the indicative or suggestive range for depression. Participants in general reported moderate loneliness and low to moderate engagement in meaningful activities. Those with self-reported depression had significantly higher loneliness and lower activity engagement, particularly in self-care, leisure, and socializing activities.
Conclusions and Relevance: A high proportion of this sample of rural homebound older adults had depression. Those who did tended to have a higher degree of loneliness and lower engagement in meaningful activities.
What This Article Adds: Depression was associated with greater loneliness and lower activity engagement in rural homebound older adults. Occupational therapy practitioners serving rural homebound older adults with depression should consider providing interventions to address loneliness and facilitate activity engagement.