OBJECTIVE. Our objective was to determine the extent to which young children at high risk for sensory processing difficulties differed from those who were at low risk.

METHOD. We compared high- versus low-risk young children using standardized measures. High-risk participants had older siblings identified as having sensory processing difficulties after a comprehensive occupational therapy evaluation (n = 13); low-risk participants (n = 16) had typically developing siblings and no family history of sensory or other neurological disorders.

RESULTS. High-risk infants scored significantly lower on the Language and Cognitive scales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development–Third Edition. The high-risk group presented with more atypical positions on the Toddler and Infant Motor Evaluation and fewer sensation-seeking behaviors on the Toddler Sensory Profile–2.

CONCLUSION. Results suggest that sensory, motor, cognitive, and language dimensions may be associated with sensory processing difficulties. Implications exist for the design of future studies and for early intervention.

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