People with a chronic psychiatric disorder (CPD) have low employment rates worldwide. This multicenter retrospective cohort study examined the employment outcomes of an innovative in-house vocational training program for people with CPD in Taiwan and explored which program parameters significantly predicted outcomes. Data were retrieved from the records of 323 participants who completed the training program. Satisfactory employment rates were found at 1 (52.9%), 3 (60.4%), and 6 (65.6%) mo posttraining, and 38.7% of participants demonstrated high employment sustainability (employed throughout the first 6 mo posttraining). Three program parameters significantly predicted employment outcomes: (1) occupational therapists’ pursuit of additional training or short-term apprenticeship pertinent to clients’ job interests, (2) posttraining vocational counseling provided by community-based occupational therapists, and (3) the duration of 6 mo posttraining to allow clients to prepare for competitive employment. Occupational therapist–led in-house vocational training is a promising alternative to traditional vocational training for people with CPD.