OBJECTIVE. To determine the effectiveness of interventions addressing cognitive impairments to improve occupational performance for people with traumatic brain injury.
METHOD. A total of 37 studies met inclusion criteria: 9 Level I systematic reviews, 14 Level I studies, 5 Level II studies, and 9 Level III studies.
RESULTS. Strong evidence supports use of direct attention training, dual-task training, and strategy training to optimize executive functioning, encoding, and use of memory compensations, including assistive technology. However, in most studies, occupational performance was a secondary outcome, if it was evaluated at all.
CONCLUSION. Although evidence supports many intervention approaches used by occupational therapy practitioners to address cognitive impairments of adults with traumatic brain injury, more studies are needed in which occupational performance is the primary outcome of cognitive intervention.