OBJECTIVE. We examined participation in goal planning and development of self-awareness for people with impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury.

METHOD. We performed a mixed-methods study of 8 participants recently discharged from inpatient rehabilitation. Self-awareness was measured using discrepancy between self and significant other ratings on the Mayo–Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI–4) at four time points. We calculated effect size to evaluate the change in MPAI–4 discrepancy over time.

RESULTS. Seven participants identified their own goals. We found a large reduction in mean MPAI–4 discrepancy (M = 8.57, SD = 6.59, N = 7, d = 1.08) in the first 6 wk and a further small reduction (M = 5.33, SD = 9.09, N = 6, d = 0.45) in the second 6 wk of intervention. Case data indicated that 7 participants demonstrated some growth in self-awareness.

CONCLUSION. Engagement in occupation-based, goal-directed rehabilitation appeared to foster awareness of injury-related changes to varying extents.

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