People with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to specific areas of relative developmental strength and challenge, but it is unclear whether and how this profile affects participation in school and community settings. In this study we characterized the nature of school participation and performance of functional tasks in the school context for 26 elementary students with DS (mean age = 7.86 yr; standard deviation = 1.75). Students participated in assessments of cognitive status and language development. Their teachers completed the School Function Assessment (Coster, Deeney, Haltiwanger, & Haley, 1998) questionnaire and a standardized questionnaire on executive functioning (EF). Students demonstrated a pronounced pattern of assistance- and adaptation-related needs across various domains of school function. The strongest predictor of school function was EF skills, as reported by teachers (adjusted R2 = .47, p = .003). Findings from this study should inform future intervention and school-related planning for elementary school students with DS.