The Centennial Vision articulated by the American Occupational Therapy Association includes moving the profession to being science driven and evidence based. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy contributes to this vision by publishing high-quality research. I reviewed research in the practice area of neurological rehabilitation published between May 2010 and October 2011. In particular, I reviewed effectiveness and efficacy studies, instrument development and testing, and basic research studies. Concerns emerging from the review were (1) few studies in neurological rehabilitation; (2) many disorders not represented; (3) exclusive use of impairment-level outcomes in some studies; and (4) high preponderance of case series designs in effectiveness studies. To achieve the Centennial Vision, the field needs to improve the volume and diversity of research in neurological rehabilitation. It is also important to modify academic and clinical practice to enable occupational therapists to spend more time in producing high-quality evidence to support the crucial role they play in neurological rehabilitation.