I reviewed articles published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) in 2009 and 2010 to assess (1) whether research was published in the practice area of rehabilitation, disability, and participation and (2) the evidence being produced in an underdeveloped subcategory of this practice area: cognitive rehabilitation after stroke. The review revealed one intervention effectiveness study that addressed cognitive rehabilitation poststroke published in the 2-year period. Further analysis of outside repositories of evidence in this area revealed that although some evidence supports rehabilitation approaches for people with cognitive dysfunction after a stroke, little research has been devoted to this practice area. The poststroke cognitive intervention approaches in use have been shown to have little or no effect on improving everyday life activity. Occupational therapy has a key research and practice role with the poststroke population, and occupational therapists should be at the forefront in developing the science to support the effectiveness of their services.