We conducted a systematic review focusing on articles in the occupational therapy practice category of Children and Youth published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy over the 2-yr period of 2009–2010. We used the frameworks of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and Positive Youth Development (PYD) to explore occupational therapy research progress toward the goals of the Centennial Vision. We organized 46 research articles by research type and classified them within these two frameworks. Most reviewed published research investigated variables representing constructs falling within the ICF domains of Body Functioning and Activity. The effect of occupational therapy interventions on PYD resided primarily in building competence. To meet the tenets of the Centennial Vision, occupational therapists must document changes in children’s engagement in everyday life situations and build the evidence of occupational therapist’s efficacy in facilitating participation.