Maternal childbearing attitudes and self-definition as related to maternal perceptions of infant temperament were investigated in a pilot study. Maternal attitudes, self-definition, and perceptions of infant temperament were determined through mothers’ self-report. Results indicated that maternal attitudes—including self-confidence and feelings toward infants and children—were positively related to maternal perceptions of infant temperament. That is, mothers who reported low self-confidence and negative feelings toward infants and children in general also rated their infants’ temperament as more negative. In addition, maternal work experience involving children was inversely related to maternal perceptions of infant temperament, in that those mothers who had more work experience with children rated their infants as being more difficult. The findings are consistent with Sameroff’s transactional model of development (Sameroff & Chandler, 1975) wherein both the psychological and behavioral aspects of mother and infant create the milieu for further development.