An interdisciplinary evidence-based review of interventions among persons with substance-use disorders was completed in 2001 as part of American Occupational Therapy Association’s (AOTA’s) Evidence-Based Literature Review Project (Lieberman & Scheer, 2002). Four effective interventions for adults and adolescents with substance use were identified, including brief interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational strategies, and 12-step programs. The research studies reviewed reported outcomes primarily related to reduction in alcohol and drug use. Occupational therapy interventions grounded in current evidence-based literature are suggested. Interventions are modified to include an occupational perspective leading to outcomes consistent with the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (American Occupational Therapy Association [AOTA], 2002). Study findings propose research questions to encourage further investigation of the effectiveness of these best practice interventions.