One of the main challenges to occupational therapists in community practice is applying our existing knowledge base to support a different kind of practice in the community. This article explores the theory base in occupational therapy that informs three models of community practice: client centered, community-based rehabilitation, and independent living. It defines these three preferred models of service delivery for community practice and looks at the knowledge requirements for each. Using a taxonomy developed to classify occupational therapy theory, the article examines existing theory and gaps in the theory base for occupational therapy in community practice. Finally, the article challenges practicing therapists, educators, and researchers to examine their use of theory and their underlying assumptions for meeting the challenge of community practice.