Job analysis is used in a variety of fields to identify the nature of work performed. Occupational therapists use job analysis as a basis for evaluating injured workers, planning rehabilitative programs, structuring preemployment screening protocols, developing transitional work plans, and conducting environmental modification and risk management programs. There is little evidence in the literature of a theoretical basis or practical framework for job analysis in occupational therapy, although the theory that underlies occupational therapy provides a general foundation. Current job analysis methods appear inadequate for the wide range of practice applications and for responding to the changing nature of the labor market. A need is identified for further investigation of methods derived from occupational therapy and other disciplines, development of documentation approaches suited to a variety of job types, and attention to validity and reliability of results.