This article employs a metaphor of weaving in order to analyze, both historically and critically, the art and science of occupational therapy. To spark reflection about where occupational therapy has been, is now, and would like to progress as the new century approaches, the article is thematically organized around the profession’s two most fundamental convictions. These convictions are termed the warp and weft of occupational therapy. The warp of occupational therapy is defined as our philosophical belief that engagement in occupation can favorably influence health. The weft of occupational therapy is defined as our humanistic value of respect for the person. Occupational therapy is, in turn, regarded as a powerful tapestry of human potential that unfolds when this belief and value are therapeutically applied. By analyzing selective clinical, educational, and research initiatives throughout this century, the article is dedicated to the continued adherence to, and development of, occupational therapy’s core principles.