Provision of safe and effective occupational therapy in neonatal intensive care units requires an understanding of neonatal medical conditions and treatment modalities. This article explains basic medical concepts and technology with terminology frequently encountered in neonatal intensive care. Discussions of neonatal thermoregulation, respiratory care, hemodynamic monitoring, and metabolic support are presented as general areas of focus. Equipment usage and precautions are included. Several case studies illustrate the incorporation of medical knowledge into neonatal occupational therapy practice.