The effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for adults with brain injury is largely dependent on how well clients are able to learn the new strategies, techniques, and information therapists are trying to teach them. Neuroscience research in the past two decades has provided some intriguing hints about the neurological processes that may underlie that learning. Understanding this research might stimulate new occupational therapy ideas about more effective ways to facilitate recovery and learning in adults with brain injury. This review presents an overview of the physical, biochemical, and electrical changes in nerve cells that have been found to accompany learning in adults with and without brain injury. Recommendations for treatment derived from the review include teaching to clients’ levels of learning and information-processing strengths.