Current assessments of simple activities of daily living (ADL) and more complex, instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) could be improved. These assessments are criticized because there are so many different tests for various diagnostic populations, because they rely on self-report rather than observation, because they are based on such varied conceptual frameworks, because they are often cumbersome and lengthy to administer, and because they often rely on outdated or specific cultural perspectives. Improvement of ADL and IADL assessment lies in making them more contextual and client specific, (i.e., by addressing clients’ needs in real-life contexts that consider roles, culture, varying environments, and developmental stage).

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