The relationship between upper extremity motor function and independence in basic activities of daily living in subjects with hemiplegia was explored. The Barthel Index (Mahoney & Barthel, 1965) and the Fugl-Meyer Test (Fugl-Meyer, Jääskö, Leyman, Olsson, & Steglind, 1975) were selected as the standard instruments for the evaluation of activities of daily living and upper extremity motor function, respectively, because their validity and reliability have been demonstrated many times. The Functional Test for the Hemiplegic/Paretic Upper Extremity (Wilson, Baker, & Craddock, 1984a, 1984b) was also used for the evaluation of upper extremity motor function. The results obtained in 18 subjects with hemiplegia indicate that the scores on the Barthel Index are poorly correlated with both the Fugl-Meyer Test and the Functional Test for the Hemiplegic/Paretic Upper Extremity scores. It is suggested that variables other than motor function, such as the learning of compensatory techniques and perceptual–cognitive status, are responsible for this discrepancy because they can influence activities of daily living performance in persons with hemiplegia. The high correlation between the scores on the Fugl-Meyer Test and the Functional Test for the Hemiplegic/Paretic Upper Extremity indicates that either test may be used for the assessment of upper extremity motor function.