The demand for efficient and effective health care prompted this study comparing the treatment outcomes and personnel costs of two types of occupational therapy service provision for the patient with a total hip replacement. System 1 used traditional individual treatment as the primary service provision method, with group treatment used as an adjunct. System 2 used group treatment as the primary intervention method, with individual treatment as the adjunct. Program evaluation research found the study subjects to be demographically homogeneous with no difference in treatment outcomes relative to four specific functional performance goals. Direct labor costs, however, were reduced by more than one third for the System 2 patients. The results of this study suggest that for specific rehabilitation patient populations, group treatment could be a cost-effective method of occupational therapy service provision.