This paper proposes an alternative to the deficit-specific approach that has been used to guide the visual perceptual assessment and treatment of brain injured adults. Recent theoretical advances in visual object perception are combined with a cognitive rehabilitation model to provide a framework for occupational therapy assessment and treatment of object-processing dysfunction. Assessment guidelines are presented that emphasize the analysis of residual function by specifying the task conditions that influence visual perception. A case study illustrates clinical application of this approach. Implications for research are discussed.