Approximately 75,000 polio survivors are experiencing new weakness, pain, and fatigue that are related to their initial disease. These problems affect their functional ability; therefore, they are of concern to occupational therapists. Overwork of a weakened neuromuscular system is believed to be the cause of these late symptoms. This article reviews current writings on the late effects of poliomyelitis. An understanding of the symptoms, causality, and psychosocial ramifications of this phenomenon facilitates effective occupational therapy intervention. Guidelines for occupational therapy assessment and treatment are included.