A reflective occupational therapist is conceived as one who values theory and uses it as a tool for setting and solving problems in clinical situations. In this study, we investigated the extent of knowledgeability of theories of occupational therapy practitioners in Israel. Data were collected in two stages: (a) through personal interviews with a representative sample of all occupational therapists (n = 98) with the use of a semistructured questionnaire and (b) through telephone interviews of recent graduates of one school (n = 40) with the use of a shortened version of the original questionnaire. The findings from an open-ended question concerning knowledgeability of theories reflected (a) the degree of the theories’ scientific development, (b) the differentiation between models conceived as theories and those seen as techniques for treatment, and (c) the changes in professional curricula resulting from scientific and clinical developments in the field. In addition, a more general knowledge level, termed recognition, showed a consistent understanding of the theories and treatment modalities relevant in the practitioners’ specialty areas. The results of this study indicate a need for further articulation of theory in clinical practice as well as better educational preparation of the “reflective practitioner” (Schön, 1983).