This paper presents the hypothesis that in-depth knowledge of the neurosciences serves as a common denominator that enhances our ability to interpret all aspects of human behavior. Neurobiological information can be used to design research to evaluate our existing treatment philosophy and methodology and to develop new theories and technology. Because occupational therapy addresses widely divergent diagnostic populations, three separate areas along the practice continuum were selected to demonstrate the application of neurobiological concepts: (a) neuroimmunomodulation, (b) organic bases of psychopathology, and (c) traumatic brain injury. Philosophical statements regarding effective methods of teaching neurobiology to occupational therapists are included.

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