In response to our perceptions of the need to clarify the nature of school-based occupational therapy services at the local, state, and federal levels, we have written this article to address three areas. First, we suggest that the terminology used by school-based occupational therapists to describe their work be explained in terms that will allow parents and educators to better understand the roles and functions of the occupational therapist in the school. Second, to clarify and thereby increase the marketability of school-based occupational therapy, we propose a conceptual framework upon which the provision of occupational therapy as a service related to education can be based. Third, to clarify the unique role of occupational therapy in the schools, we define the roles and functions of school-based occupational therapy in such a way as to differentiate it from other related school-based services. Finally, we identify strategies to further secure the position of occupational therapy in the schools.