Therapists who evaluate children in school settings often find that information provided by standardized tests is insufficient for effective treatment planning. Vygotsky’s concept of defining a child’s zone of proximal development is introduced to help therapists gain insight into why a child experiences task failure and assistance that can facilitate the child’s task success. This evaluation process and treatment planning framework may be used by both school and clinic-based therapists to differentiate children who should receive direct occupational therapy services from those who can benefit from indirect service.

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