This paper culled from the occupational therapy literature of the 1978-1983 period statements in support of our philosophical base, in opposition to our treatment modalities, and in examination of the cause and course of our internal professional debate. The futurist literature projecting external trends in economic and sociocultural areas, including medicine and health, was also sampled for evidence that might either sustain or further challenge traditional theory and practice. The conclusion drawn was that our heritage of belief in and use of occupation as both the central organizing theme and mode of professional practice is better suited to future intervention strategies than are borrowed, nontraditional treatment media. Four recommendations for actualizing a more unified theory and practice are proposed.

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